1. The project manager's leadership style should be matched to the corresponding developmental level of the project team and should move through successive steps in the following order:
1. Disciplinary, autocratic, participative
2. Staff planning, team training, performance monitoring
3. Team building, team development, responsibility assignment
4. Directing, coaching, supporting, delegating
2. Human resource administration is the primary responsibility of the:
1. Project Management Team
2. Human Resources Department
3. Executive Manager
4. Project Manager
5. Line Managers
3. A mandatory prerequisite for team building is:
1. Funding for staff development activities
2. Shared work ethics among team members
3. Commitment from top level management
4. Removal of troublesome individuals
4. Which of the following is best for handling cross-functional project needs for a large, complex project?
1. A strong matrix organization
2. A project coordinator
3. A project expeditor
4. Direct executive involvement
5. A functional organization
5. Collocation can mean:
1. All, or almost all, team members are moved to a central physical location for the life of the project.
2. Active team members may be at different physical locations, but meet on a regular basis.
3. A war room is established where team members can meet periodically.
4. a and c
5. b and c
6. A key barrier to team development is:
1. A strong matrix management structure.
2. When major problems delay the project completion date or budget targets.
3. When team members are accountable to both functional and project managers.
4. When formal training plans cannot be implemented.
5. When members cannot be collocated.
7. Which of the following are examples of project-based organizations?
1. Architectural firms, engineering firms, and consultants
2. Construction contractors and government contractors
3. Organizations that have adopted a management by projects approach
4. Most manufacturing companies and financial service firms
5. a, b, and c
6. a, b, and d
8. Legitimate power is:
1. Power derived from a person's formal position in the organization.
2. Power bestowed due to a person's personal qualities and abilities.
3. Power earned based on a person's technical knowledge, skill, or expertise in a particular area.
4. Power to distribute information as one sees fit.
9. What impact does a matrix organization have on project team development?
1. No impact at all
2. It complicates team development.
3. It simplifies team development.
4. It hinders team development completely.
10. Which of the following is not a process of project human resource management?
1. Organizational Planning
2. Staff Acquisition
3. Information Distribution
4. Team Development
11. A technique for resolving conflict in which the parties agree to have a neutral third party hear the dispute and make a decision is called:
12. Which of the following is not an input into organizational planning?
1. Recruitment practices
2. Project interfaces
3. Staffing requirements
13. Forcing, as a means to manage conflict:
1. Exerts one's view at the potential expense of another party.
2. Emphasizes areas of agreement while avoiding points of disagreement.
3. Establishes a lose-lose situation.
4. a and c
14. When should the project expeditor form of organization be used?
1. When the project is extremely important to the organization.
2. When a project's cost and importance are relatively low.
3. When the project manager has a lot of responsibility and accountability.
4. When the organization's primary source of revenue is derived from projects.
15. The belief that management's high levels of trust, confidence and commitment to workers leads to high levels of motivation and productivity on the part of workers is a part of which motivation theory?
1. Theory Y
2. Theory Z
3. Theory X
4. Contingency Theory
16. Which of the following is part of the expectancy theory of motivation?
1. Clear, specific, and challenging goals generally motivate team members.
2. Project managers should ensure that tasks assigned to project participants match their skills and the organizational climate is conducive to helping them meet their needs and achieving a sense of competence.
3. People tend to be highly productive and motivated if they believe their efforts will lead to successful results and that success will lead to personal rewards.
4. b and c
5. All of the above are part of the expectancy theory of motivation
17. Which of the following statements concerning compromise as a conflict resolution is false?
1. Neither party wins but both parties get some degree of satisfaction.
2. Important aspects of the project may be hindered in order to achieve personal objectives.
3. Compromise is generally considered a lose-lose situation.
4. A Definitive resolution is seldom achieved.
18. In which type of organization is team building likely to be most difficult?
4. Project expediter
5. Project coordinator
19. A document or tool which describes when and how human resources will be brought onto and taken off the project team is called a:
1. Staffing Management Plan
2. Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
3. Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)
4. Resource Assignment Chart
20. A tool which links the project roles and responsibilities to the project scope definition is called:
1. Scope Definition Matrix
2. Responsibility Assignment Matrix
3. Roles Assignment Matrix
4. Project Scope and Roles Matrix
21. Formal reporting and reviews violate the basic principles of project management because they
1. are customer based and not project based
2. do not appear on the project schedule
3. do not occur frequently enough to avoid surprises
4. must be reviewed by a central project authority before being forwarded to the customer and top management
5. none of the above
22. If more than several departments must be involved in a decision, use of a task force
1. should be considered
2. will undermine the authority and power of the project manager
3. can work as long as those on the task force are experts on the issue
4. all of the above
23. MBO usually involves
1. measurable and verifiable objectives
2. objectives set by the employee
3. self-appraisals by the employee
4. implementation throughout the organization
5. all of the above
24. Priorities in a matrix organization are ultimately set by
1. the project manager
2. the functional manager
3. upper management
4. a super project manager
5. C or D
25. Project management is an effective and powerful strategy and should be implemented in every organization
26. In a matrix organization, the project manager is likely to experience
1. conflict and difficult team building
2. a sharing of accountability
3. good customer relations
4. difficulty in getting the best workers assigned to the project
5. A, C, and D
27. Which of the following should not be considered as an effective and viable alternative to project management?
1. establishment of a lead division
2. direct control by top management
3. very clear definition of responsibility and authority
4. project coordinator
5. budgeting cost control
28. The key to achieving and maintaining success in the role of a project manager is the use of
1. formal authority
2. reward power
3. expert power
4. referent power
5. coercive power
29. W. Edwards Deming would likely say that a policy of ranking employees violates which basic quality principle
1. Focus on the process and not the individual
2. Guarantee lifetime employment
3. Establish objectives and goals
4. Assign 85% of the responsibility to management
5. None of the above
30. You have just been assigned as the project manager of a 15 year, 200 trillion dollar project to marry the first couple on Mars. In addition to buying a wedding present, you will probably want to describe which type of project organization in your management plan?
31. The difference between a strong and weak matrix is best described as
1. the effectiveness of the project manager in making his project successful
2. the project vs. functional influence in decision making
3. the project vs. functional balance in power and authority
4. B and C
5. all of the above
32. Which of the following roles is not appropriate for the project manager?
3. team leader
4. technical consultant
5. climate creator
33. Which of the following are appropriate motivation factors or reward systems?
5. personal aspirations
34. An employee evaluation appears on your desk that includes the following descriptions: skilled, specialty focused, strong technical background, filtered listener, limited experience in interfacing, avoids conflict, good at developing techniques and operates well in the management hierarchy. Your first thought is to consider this person for a position as a
1. Project Coordinator
2. Project Manager
3. Task Force Leader
4. Project Specialist
5. Technical Consultant
35. For an effective matrix organization, the level of the project manager should be at
1. least equal to the highest level of functional manager to be dealt with
2. the same level as a functional manager
3. the very top of the organization
4. the level of a super project manager
5. the level of a functional manager in a weak matrix, and a level above that in a strong matrix
36. As for any manager, the project manager's responsibilities, consist of the four basic functions of __________.
1. thinking, acting, directing, and reviewing
2. thinking, planning, controlling, and monitoring
3. planning, controlling, tracking, and acting
4. planning, doing, briefing, and reviewing
5. planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
37. The project manager should be assigned to a project in its early stages. This permits the project manager to participate in the __________ conducted by the __________.
1. planning; functional staff
2. planning; project team
3. feasibility study; project team
4. implementation; subcontractors
5. implementation; functional staff
38. The project manager leads a project team that is comprised of many different skills and disciplines. He must use an exceptional number of negotiating skills because he __________.
1. is expected to discuss all facts of the technical parameters of the project
2. will be leading individuals without having direct control over them
3. will encounter the shoptalk of each unique discipline
4. will be using these skills to keep from accepting additional work
5. is the chief contract negotiator for all project subcontracts
39. Most project managers are promoted from the __________ without having prior education and training in managerial functions.
1. administrative offices
2. financial offices
3. technical fields
4. functional areas
5. labor pool
40. The project manager is responsible for the project's interface management. The three types of interfaces to be managed are __________
1. mechanical, electrical, and material
2. human, machine, and fluid
3. personal, organizational, and system
4. software, hardware, and human
5. documented, undocumented, and other
41. Once established, the project integration process must be maintained through continuous, effective __________ across interfaces.
1. communication links
2. monitoring activities
3. report flow
5. conflict resolution
42. When appointed, a project manager has the inherent forms of legitimate power conveyed to him. The three forms of legitimate power are __________.
1. absolute, direct, and indict
2. direction, coordination, and liaison
3. formal, informal, and persuasive
4. formal, reward, and direct
5. formal, reward, and penalty
43. To further the objectives of the project, the project manager may possess two forms of power that are obtained through other than a formal appointment (legitimate power). These two forms of power are __________.
1. physical and mental
2. spiritual and emotional
3. expert and assumed
4. expert and referent
5. mental and emotional
44. The project manager is the primary interface with the customer for all projects and must be an effective communicator to convey the project's status. In this regard, the project manager should keep the customer informed of the status of the project's __________ progress.
1. construction, rebuild, and rework
2. timing, schedule, and deliver
3. cost, schedule, and quality / performance
4. quality / performance, control, and assurance
5. testing, performance, and delivery
45. The project usually has a high degree of conflict during its life cycle, and the project manager must be an effective manager of that conflict. The most common areas in which conflict will be realized are __________.
1. project office, functional divisions, field sites, and corporate offices
2. project priorities, personnel resources, technical issues, and scheduling issues
3. planning phase, implementation phase, execution phase, and close-out phase
4. team building, team integration, functional coordination, and customer coordination
5. individual team, vendor, and subcontractor management
46. The five types of conflict resolution are listed below and represent, in general order of importance, the methods a project manager should use to manage conflict. The one used most often by project managers to resolve conflict is __________.
47. Although the desirable traits and characteristics for a project manager may vary slightly between industries, a few common ones are universal, but one that is not universally desirable is __________.
1. works well with others
2. experienced in his technical field
3. a good negotiator
4. well-liked by project team
5. some supervisory experience
48. The process of getting a group of diverse individuals to work effectively together as a team is the definition of __________.
2. project management
3. the project manager's responsibilities
5. team building
49. Team building focuses on getting all members to contribute toward common goals to achieve synergism. Of the following characteristics, the one that is not compatible with team building is __________.
1. must pursue individual interests
2. must be interdependent
3. must have a reason to work together
4. must be committed to working together
5. must have a moderate level of competition and conflict
50. A team is often a collection of individuals vying with others for power, prestige, recognition, and personal autonomy, but never unity of purpose. The collection of people who are not a team is frequently characterized by __________.
1. team member frustration
2. excessive conflict and individual competition
3. unproductive meetings
4. lack of trust / confidence in the project manager
5. all of the above
51. In addition to improving the success rate for goal achievements, team building has many benefits for individuals, but one characteristic that is not a benefit of team building is __________.
1. clear organizational structure
2. improved monetary rewards
3. clear aims / goals
4. improved individual creativity
5. fewer people-problems
52. Team building, with all of its success orientation, may have some limitations under certain identified conditions. Two such conditions are __________.
1. poor project tools and lack of project planning
2. lack of top management support and too much supervision by top management
3. lack of top management support and an inept project manager
4. unproductive people on the project team and an inept project manager
5. shortage of funds for bonuses and overly trained personnel on project team
53. The role of the project manager has several different elements, implying that he is responsible for many activities, but one role that is not considered one of these responsibilities of a project manager is __________.
2. project's technical director
3. system integrator
4. project advisor
5. project planner
54. A kick-off meeting is one of the best methods to get the project team started on the right path toward becoming an integrated group. Objectives of the kick-off meeting include __________.
1. introducing team members to one another
2. establishing working relationships within the team
3. setting goals and objectives for the team
4. identifying project problem areas
5. all of the above
55. In building team confidence in himself, a project manager should __________ with team members and avoid __________.
1. set limited times and opportunities for discussions; social contracts
2. encourage open conversations; politics
3. practice what he preaches; social contracts
4. encourage frank discussions; making promises
5. keep promises; being too open
56. Conflict within a project team can be avoided with prior planning and by maintaining effective communications between the project manager and the team. The most important information for the project manager to convey to the team is __________.
1. the schedule of paydays and holidays to permit planning for rest and relaxation
2. the system of rewards that permits recognition of team members through monetary or non-monetary awards
3. clear, unambiguous goals as to where the project is headed
4. that top management will not be interfering with this project as it usually does with other projects
5. that key decision have been made and how the key decisions impact the team
57. The project manager is the leader of the project team and needs to be foward-reaching in obtaining a consensus on an issue. However, it would be counterproductive to an attempted resolution of an issue if the project manager said, "__________"
1. Let's do this ...
2. Do we have some better information?
3. I believe we are saying ....
4. I have another subject to address if this is too difficult to solve now
5. I feel we can now come to agreement on this issue
58. Project managers often work 10 or more hours per day to fit the many activities into their professional schedule. There is a general agreement that all the professional time is not used as efficiently as possible. the major consumer of time, nearly two hours per day, is __________.
1. talking to top management
2. visiting the customer
3. attending project meetings
4. writing reports
5. visiting site locations
59. According to a 1981 survey, there are three categories (with average percentages) of a project manager's use of professional time: self-determined use (46.4%), others determine how to use (25.9%), and system determines how to use (27.7%). Project managers indicated a strong tendency to allocate time by self-determination, but they also indicated that their most serious cause of time conflicts was __________.
1. failing to organize sufficiently
2. poor planning
3. difficulty in saying no to people
4. spending too much time delegating and following up
5. the requirement to supervise inept project team members
60. Delegation of work to subordinates in a project gives the project manager more time to accomplish other tasks and plan the work for the future. To avoid delegating work, many project managers use the excuse __________.
1. "I already delegate enough work"
2. "Subjects are too confidential to involve others"
3. "My subordinates aren't sufficiently qualified"
4. "I can do it better"
5. all of the above
61. Theories of motivation and leadership give project managers a conceptual framework in which to operate, but practical skills are important in applying this knowledge. Skills most easily learned through group assignments and practical exercises include __________.
1. delegating and coordinating group activities
2. reaching a group decision
3. resolving conflict
4. conducting a meeting
5. all of the above
62. Project management organizations are designed to perform specific functions in the most efficient manner. the six major factors that should influence the development of a project management organization are type of structure, type of staffing, attitude toward risk, communications channels, __________.
1. type of industry, and type of project
2. project manager's desires, and client's wishes
3. people available, and top management's desires
4. project manager-client relations, and expectations of stakeholders
5. project manager's expectations, and top management's expectations
63. The project is often implemented by a matrix organization because the required specialists cannot be justified on a full-time basis. The use of a matrix organization __________ the apparent capabilities for marketing purposes and __________ the overall manpower fluctuations as the project progresses.
1. changes; reduces
2. reduces; maximizes
3. enhances; minimizes
4. minimizes; stabilizes
5. none of the above
64. The matrix organization reduces the part-time (functional) employee's anxiety about job security, but it has the adverse effect of giving the employee __________.
1. conflicting skill requirements
2. unstable tasking at the functional area
3. additional work hours commuting between jobs
4. two supervisors with possible conflicting requirements
5. additional work without the resources to accomplish it
65. The independent project organization is useful in having a dedicated staff reporting to the project manager and performing all functions for the project. The adverse side of this dedicated staff is that the project manager must __________.
1. make "busy" work for the staff during idle time
2. make use of the full-time staff for efficiency and productivity
3. loan the individuals to the functional organization during slack periods
4. frequently hire and fire people to maintain the correct skill balance for the required work
5. train the individuals in a new skill areas to ensure that work is accomplished
66. The independent project organization provides stability for the staff during execution of the project. From a personal viewpoint, the major concern of the staff is __________.
1. performing their assigned jobs well and improving individual skills
2. keeping the functional staff out of the project to preclude interference with the progress
3. minimizing the amount of work accomplished so the project will be extended
4. ensuring the budget is spent so the project will not have any residue of funds for re-allocation
5. having anxieties regarding their next assignment after the project is completed
67. A project organization may be highly structured to achieve benefits of efficiency. Two major contributors to the definition of a highly structured project organization are __________.
1. the organization chart is detailed, and individual names are assigned to the chart
2. the project manager is experienced, and full-time staff are assigned to the project
3. individuals know what is expected of them, and standards are well defined and understood
4. the project manager is dictatorial, and the staff works to only well-defined specifications
5. communications are handled only by the supervisory chain, and the liaison with third parties is conducted by formal correspondence
68. The open or loosely structured project organization does not rely on well-defined standards and procedures for guiding the work efforts. Therefore, this organization should be used for __________.
1. innovative or creative work with high-level professionals
2. routine work and with a new staff
3. production operations and with the construction industry
4. planning operations and with the functional staff
5. none of the above
69. The level of the reporting superior for the project manager is viewed as critical because it also implies the amount of interest and emphasis that the corporation places on the project. From a practical standpoint, when a project manager reports to a senior officer of the company, the project manager then has access to an individual with the __________ to resolve inter-project conflicts.
1. ability and resources
2. power and authority
3. will and desire
4. seniority and maturity
5. need and desire
70. Changes to the project staff are necessary because of personal desires and the re-allocation of resources to more critical projects. Planning for staff changes can ease the turbulence, and the project manager should look for replacement people who __________.
1. are new to a project environment and need to learn
2. are eager to please management and easy to please
3. will stay with the project until completion, regardless of their qualifications
4. better match the skill requirements than those being replaced
5. are more mature in the industry and understand the need to complete projects
71. Project planning is best accomplished by the project manager because he can be held completely responsible for executing the work. When the project manager is not involved in the planning, it is most likely that he will __________.
1. need time to adjust the plan to fit his concept of the project
2. quickly grasp and agree with the planning if top management directs the immediate implementation
3. not like the plan under any circumstance because it is the project manager's prerogative to develop the budget and schedule
4. not care whether the planning is flawed because he always has an excuse for any failure
5. have problems with the technical approach, schedule, or budget in the plan
72. There is a long-term need to develop individuals within a company to assume positions of leadership and greater responsibility. Comparing the functional and project organization, the opportunity for personnel development __________.
1. is greater in the project organization
2. is greater in the functional organization
3. cannot be determined between the two organizations
4. is greater in the project organization during the planning phase only
5. is greater in the functional organization when the individuals are allowed to matrix to a project
73. The title of project manager is universally used to identify the single person responsible for the accomplishment of work to meet a company's objectives for a defined area of work. Throughout the industries, the project manager's responsibilities __________.
1. are similar but are met through different practices
2. are similar and are met through similar practices
3. are similar for major responsibilities but different for the detailed practices to meet the responsibilities
4. are considerably different and follow the practices of the industry for meeting the responsibilities
5. are somewhat different but generally follow the same practices for meeting the responsibilities
74. The role of the project manager will differ depending upon whether he works for the owner (buyer), performing contractor, or supplier. The attributes and characteristics, however, are similar and include having __________.
1. recognized leadership skills with organizational ability
2. breadth of experience in related projects
3. ability to communicate and work with others
4. ability to obtain maximum input from team members
5. all of the above
75. The project manager's authority should be commensurate with the degree of assigned responsibility. Senior management should define the project manager's authorities and publicly announce them in either __________.
1. an informal meeting or the project kick-off meeting
2. the organization's communication organ or the local newspaper
3. the letter of appointment or the project charter
4. the project policy manual or the project execution manual
5. a special letter to the project manager or the letter of appointment